Complex phenomena do not always require complex explanations. Nature provides us with many examples of ordered complexity that seems to emerge out of simple procedures repeated without forethought or plan. These often surprising results encourage us to look for simple rules to explain some of the complex issues that face us today.

In the following simulations, we look at the patterns of birds in flight, the cooperation of single-celled organisms, and in some cases, just numbers doing remarkable things, to explore some of the underlying concepts in emergence.